Perko-Delphi Carbon Canister

Overview

Carbon canisters have been used in automotive applications for decades. They filter hydrocarbons out of fumes vented during thermal expansion and/or refueling of tanks. Canisters are then purged when fresh air is drawn into the tank during thermal contraction or while the engine is running. By regulation, canisters must be protected from water and raw fuel. Both reduce their efficiency. Canister sizing is dictated by both boat and tank size.


Features & Benefits

  • Polymer body to allow various size canisters with low tooling investment
  • End caps welded to extruded body
  • Patented "floating bracket" allows for easy installation while reducing the transmission of torque to the canister body, end caps and spuds. The "floating bracket" also protects end caps from heat so that the factory installed heat shield is all that is needed to meet engine compartment requirements for fire protection. Builders simply install as usual with no additional effort or insulation requirements.
  • Spring loaded volume compensator compresses carbon to reduce internal abrasion caused by vibrations. The heavy wall, elliptically shaped body and location of the volume compensator near the end of the canister permit higher pressures (up to 5 psi) during pressure testing, thus simplifying pressure test set up.
  • Activated carbon - Volume varies depending on application


System Concept

Hydrocarbon molecules are attracted to and stored on the surfaces of carbon pores by a physical phenomenon known as adsorption. Canister filling or adsorption occurs during two major events – thermal tank content expansion and refueling. Canister purging for marine industry will occur passively – based on vacuum created during cooling of gas and gas tank and engine use of fuel. Tank vacuum will pull ambient air through the canister resulting in desorption or purging of hydrocarbons from the canister. Purging is a function of the amount of vapor in the canister, purge air volume, and temperature.


Mounting

  • Engine Compartment Mounting - If the canister is mounted in the engine compartment, then a heat shield is required for the canister. (to pass the coast guard fire test) The shield comes permanently mounted to the canister.
  • Other Mounting Locations - For non-engine compartment locations the heat shield is not required.
  • Mechanical - Choose a canister location that protects the canister from external impacts. Do not mount in a location where the canister will be stepped on. The mounting location should be stiff, to minimize twisting/bending of the canister body.
  • Temperature - The canister can withstand temperatures of 115°C continuously with 15 minute excursions to 125°C. A permanently mounted heat shield is available on the canister. It is for applications where the canister is mounted in the engine compartment and thus the canister must pass the Coast Guard fire test. The heat shield will also help if there is a short term temperature excursion, but is NOT effective for reducing a high continuous temperature.
  • Liquids - The canister is a hydrocarbon VAPOR control device. Allowing liquid (water or gasoline) to enter into the canister will cover the carbon and prevent it from capturing the gasoline vapors. While a one time event of getting liquid into the canister will not harm the carbon, a poorly designed system will repeatedly allow liquid into the canister and prevent the canister from functioning properly. The EPA regulations require that systems be designed to prevent liquid from entering the canister.

EPA Regulations

  • Control of emissions from spark-ignition propulsion marine engines
  • Control of evaporative emissions from new and in-use non-reader and stationary equipment

Implementation Timing

  • 1045.112
    • (d) Diurnal emissions. Installed fuel tanks must meet the diurnal emission requirements specified in 40 CFR 1060.105. Fuel tanks for personal watercraft must meet diurnal emission standards starting in the 2010 model year. Other installed fuel tanks must meet diurnal emission standards for vessels produced on or after July 31, 2011, except as allowed by §1045.625.
  • 1045.625
    • (b) Allowances. You may choose one of the following options to produce exempted vessels under this section:
      1. Percent-of-production allowances. You may produce up to 50 percent of your vessels from July 31, 2011 through July 31, 2012 that are exempt from the diurnal emission standards. Calculate this percentage based on your total U.S.-directed production volume.
      2. Small-volume allowances. Small-volume vessel manufacturers may produce up to 1200 vessels from July 31, 2011 through July 31, 2013 that are exempt from the diurnal emission standards.

EPA Diurnal Requirements

  • 1060.105
    • Diurnal emissions from marine SI fuel tanks may not exceed 0.40 g/gal/day when measured using the test procedures specified in §1060.525 for general fuel temperatures. An alternative standard of 0.16 g/gal/day applies for fuel tanks installed in non trailerable boats when measured using the corresponding fuel temperature profile in §1060.525
  • 1060.101
    • (iii) If the emission controls rely on carbon canisters, they must be installed in a way that prevents exposing the carbon to water or liquid fuel.

EPA Warranty and Required Instructions

  • §1060.120 Warranty
    • (b) Warranty period. Your emission-related warranty must be valid for at least two years from the point of first retail sale.
  • §1060.125 What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?
    • Give ultimate purchasers written instructions for properly maintaining and using the emission control system. You may not specify any maintenance more frequently than once per year. For example, if you produce cold-weather equipment that requires replacement of fuel cap gaskets or O-rings, provide clear instructions to the ultimate purchaser, including the required replacement interval.
  • §1060.130 What installation instructions must I give to equipment manufacturers?
    • (a) If you sell a certified fuel-system component for someone else to install in equipment, give the installer instructions for installing it consistent with the requirements of this part.
    • (b) Make sure the instructions have the following information:
      1. Include the heading: “Emission-related installation instructions”.
      2. State: “Failing to follow these instructions when installing [IDENTIFY COMPONENT(S)] in a piece of non road equipment violates federal law (40 CFR 1068.105(b)), subject to fines or other penalties as described in the Clean Air Act.”
      3. Describe any limits on the range of applications needed to ensure that the component operates consistently with your application for certification.

EPA Labeling

  • 1060.137 Labeling
    • (b) Label your certified fuel-system components at the time of manufacture. The label must be placed without being destroyed or defaced. This may involve printing directly onto the product
      1. Attached so it is not removable. For molded products, you may use the mold to apply the label.
      2. Durable and readable for the equipment’s entire life.
      3. Written in English.

    • (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, you must create the label specified in paragraph (b) of this section as follows:
      1. Include your corporate name. You may identify another company instead of yours if you comply with the provisions of §1054.640.
      2. Include EPA’s standardized designation for the emission family.
      3. State: “EPA COMPLIANT”.

    • (d) You may create an abbreviated label for your components. Such a label may rely on codes to identify the component. The code must, at a minimum, identify the certification status, your corporate name, and the emission family. For example, XYZ Manufacturing may label its fuel lines as “EPA-XYZ-A15” to designate that their “A15” family was certified to meet EPA’s 15 g/m2/day standard. If you do this, you must describe the abbreviated label in your application for certification and identify all the associated information specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

EPA Design Based Certification

  • §1042.107 Evaporative emission standards
    • (a) There are no evaporative emission standards for diesel-fueled engines, or engines using other nonvolatile or non liquid fuels (for example, natural gas).
    • (b) If an engine uses a volatile liquid fuel, such as methanol, the engine’s fuel system and the vessel in which the engine is installed must meet the evaporative emission requirements of 40 CFR part 1045 that apply with respect to spark-ignition engines. Manufacturers subject to evaporative emission standards must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 1045.112 as described in 40 CFR part 1060 and do all the following things in the application for certification:
      1. Describe how evaporative emissions are controlled.
      2. Present test data to show that fuel systems and vessels meet the evaporative emission standards we specify in this section if you do not use design-based certification under 40 CFR 1060.240
  • §1060.240 How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with evaporative emission standards?
    • There are 2 methods of showing compliance
      1. Provide test data
      2. Design based compliance. Use of materials and designs as specified by the EPA to meet the regulatory limits.
  • §1060.525 How do I test fuel systems for diurnal emissions if I do not use a design based certification?
    • SHED testing
  • For detailed information, see actual regulation wording at: